Your Pokémon in Pokémon GO Could Have a High CP, But it Doesn't Mean That it is Stronger Than Others with Lower CPs

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Most Pokémon GO gamers assume that the higher the Combat Power (CP), the stronger the Pokémon is, and they would transfer the lower CP Pokémon in order to boost the CP of another. But do you know that you might have been transferring out a lot of potentially stronger Pokémon in favor of your higher CP Pokémon? Just because you have, say for example, a CP 300 Eevee and a CP 130 Eevee, it does not mean that the one with the higher CP is stronger than the one with the lower CP. In fact, there is a possibility that the CP 130 Eevee could be a lot stronger than its counterpart because of its hidden stats.
The Individual Value (IV) forms the hidden stats of the Pokémon. IV is a hidden mechanic that has existed since the dawn of Pokémon games; Pokémon Yellow, Red and Blue. Similarly, it exists in Pokémon GO too. Each and every individual Pokémon has them, and while the CP can be changed, your Pokémon's IV remains the same throughout levelling, which is why it is imperative to find one with a better IV opposed to one with a high CP.
To put it in better perspective for all Singaporeans to understand, let's just assume that the CP is someone's bank account balance, and the IV represents someone's talents and personality. So Ah Beng has a bank account balance of $300, while Ah Kow has a mere $130 in his bank. Even though Ah Beng has more money than Ah Kow, it does not mean that Ah Beng is a better person. After a background check into both of these guys, we realize that Ah Beng is a good-for-nothing, arrogant hooligan who dropped out in secondary school and his only talent is in hurling hokkien expletives at anyone who so much as glances in his direction (which is basically useless and like a Magikarp using SPLASH). While Ah Kow is a kind, hard-working, dedicated, and intelligent individual who sets ambitious goals for himself and does everything in his power to carve out a brighter future for himself.
In a battle between Ah Beng and Ah Kow, this is how it will go:
It does not affect AH KOW
IT IS SUPER EFFECTIVE. AH BENG is charged in court under SECTION 13A of the LEGAL SYSTEM and goes to jail!
So tell me la, will you choose the verbally abusive, useless Ah Beng with $300, or the dependent and ambitious Ah Kow with $130? Even after knowing all this and you still choose Ah Beng, I don't even need to do a background check on you, I can safely say that your IV also very low.
Singaporean analogy aside, basically, every species of Pokémon has base stats, some have higher stats, some have lower. There are three stats in Pokémon GO: Attack, Defence and Stamina. Unlike the original Pokémon games, Pokémon GO's stats are pretty much hidden from plain sight. The only stat in Pokémon GO that is visible to an extent is HP (which is based on the Stamina stat). For example, species X has a base stat of 100 Attack, 100 Defence and 100 Stamina at max level (40.5 currently in Pokémon GO). For every single species X at max level, they will all have the same base stat (IV not taken into account). The reason why two of the same Pokémon have different stats, despite being of the same level, is due to IVs.
IVs cannot be altered. If your magikarp has the perfect IV, it will continue to have the perfect IV for the rest of its life even after evolving into Gyarados. Power Up or Evolving does not change the value of its IV. IVs are hidden multipliers for a Pokémon's base stats. Each Pokémon will have an IV of 0 to 15 for each of the three stats. If a Pokémon has 15 of all three stats, it has perfect IVs! This would mean that it will have the highest possible stats for that particular species of Pokemon. So basically, more IVs, the better stats a Pokemon will have.
These IVs make small differences in the final power of a Pokemon. For example, the base attributes of a Charizard are 212, 182, 156. This would be the "worst" charizard available where all IV's are zero. With max IVs, a Charizard would have 227, 197, 171. Each of these Atk, Def and Stam values for Charizard are only 7-10% better. 
While it is extremely difficult to get perfect IVs, the reward of doing so is approximately a 10% stat increase compared to a Pokemon with 0 IVs. This may not seem like much to most players, but if you want to be the very best like no one ever was, all these little things go a long way. Simply put, if two Pokémon of different IVs and all other variables being the same, the one with more IVs would likely be the winner of the battle. Other variables include Moveset, Dodging attacks, when are special attacks use etc.
So how do you go about finding out whether your Pokémon has a desirable IV or not? There is a very complicated two-step formula that can provide your Pokémon's IV, alternatively you can just take the easy way out and simply use the IV calculator here. All you have to do is select the Pokémon species, and enter in its CP, HP, Dust required to power up, and whether you have Powered it up before and the IV combinations will be calculated for you. So before you start mass transferring extra Pokémon, you should really calculate its IV to determine which is the best to keep. Have fun and go catch em' all!

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